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考研:英语冲刺核心词汇

2015-12-09 12:16:26 考研真题 来源:http://www.chinazhaokao.com 浏览:

导读: 英语 词汇 核心  【同义替换】preponderant, dominant, primacy  【派生】overwhelm v.淹没,覆没;压倒,制服...

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  考研:英语冲刺核心词汇

  overwhelming

  a.势不可挡的,压倒性的

  【同义替换】preponderant, dominant, primacy  【派生】overwhelm v.淹没,覆没;压倒,制服

  【真题】It is not easy to talk about the role of the mass media in this overwhelmingly significant phase in European history.谈论大众媒体在欧洲历史上这个具有非凡意义的阶段所发挥的作用并非易事。

  frustrate

  v.阻扰;挫败,使灰心

  【同义替换】discomfort, defeat, founder 【派生】frustrated a.失意的,泄气的frustration n.失败,挫败frustrating a.令人沮丧的

  【真题】Physicians-frustrated by their inability to cure the disease and fearing loss of hope in the patient—too often offer aggressive treatment far beyond what is scientifically justified.由于不能治愈癌症又害怕病人对生活失去希望,医生频繁地大胆用药,乃至超出合理范围。

  transmit

  v.传输;转送;发射vi.发射信号;发报

  【同义替换】send, transfer, convey, broadcast, spread  【派生】transmitter n.发报机,发射台,起传送或传播作用的人或事物

  【真题】In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to“push”information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers. 去年,软件公司开发出新的技术,这些技术使得公司可以直接将信息“推送”给消费者,直接把营销信息传送给特定的用户。

  abstract

  a.抽象的n.摘要,梗概v.提取;摘录要点

  【同义替换】brief, summary, resume 【派生】abstraction n.抽象;提取;心不在焉abstracted a.心不在焉的

  【真题】He asserted, also, that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited, for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeeded with mathematics. 他在此断言,在深入理解冗长且完全抽离的观点上,他的能力是有限的。鉴于此,他曾确信自己在数学方面不会有所成就。

  relevant

  a.有关的,中肯的,相应的

  【同义替换】pertinent【派生】relevance/relevancy n.中肯,关联,相关性irrelevant a.不想关的

  【真题】Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view.他的幽默必须与听众有关,能够向他们表示你是他们的一员,或者你了解他们的情况,并且赞成他们的观点。

  profile

  n.侧面;轮廓,外形;人物简介

  【同义替换】flank;outline, lineament 【派生】high-profile a.高调,引人注意的

  【真题】A lateral move that hurt my pride and blocked my professional progress prompted me to abandon my relatively high profile career although, in the manner of a disgraced government minister, I covered my exit by claiming“I wanted to spend more time with my family”. 一次平级调动伤了我的自尊心,而且阻碍了我的职业发展,促使我放弃我那相对备受瞩目的职业。然而,我却像一位颜面扫地的政府部长一样,用“我想多陪陪家人”来掩盖我辞职的真正原因。

  vigorous

  a.朝气蓬勃的,精力旺盛的

  【同义替换】robust, strong  【派生】vigorously ad.有活力地

  【真题】Reform has been vigorously opposed, perhaps most notoriously in education, where charter schools, academies and merit pay all faced drawn-out battles. 改革一直遭到强烈反对,最让人惊讶的可能就是在教育业,其中的特许学校、学会和绩效工资都面临着持久的斗争。

  executive

  n.总经理,董事,行政负责人a.执行的,实施的

  【同义替换】administrator, director, agent  【派生】execution n.执行,实行,履行;完成executor n.遗嘱执行人

  【真题】In recent weeks the No.2 executives at Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they were looking for a CEO post. 最近几周,Avon和American Express的一些高级经理离职并解释说想找一个CEO的职位。

  penalty

  n.处罚,罚金;刑罚

  【同义替换】fine, punishment  【派生】penalize v.处罚,惩罚penalization n.处罚,刑罚

  【真题】The current state of affairs may have been encouraged—though not justified—by the lack of legal penalty(in America, but no Europe)for data leakage.现在这种状况,虽然不合理,但(在美国,而不是欧洲)由于缺乏对数据泄露的法律制裁,可能还会加剧。

  formidable

  a.令人敬畏的;可怕的;艰难的

  【同义替换】august, awesome; fearful, horrible, dreadful, frightful; rough

  【派生】formidably ad.令人敬畏地;艰难地

  【真题】Even Tommasini, who had advocated Gilbert’s appointment in the Times, calls him“an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him.” 甚至在《泰晤士报》杂志上发文支持Gillberi任命的Tommasini都称其为“低调的音乐家,在他身上找不到那种令人敬畏的指挥家的气质。”

  recruit

  v.征募(新兵),招收n.新成员,新兵

  【同义替换】enlist, con 【派生】recruitment n.征募新兵;补充recruiter n.招聘人员,征兵人员

  【真题】In the case of NBA players, their increase in height appears to result from the increasingly common practice of recruiting players from all over the world.NBA球员的情况是,他们越来越高的身高是由于他们在全球各地招募球员这一做法的普及。

  handicap

  v.妨碍,使不利n.缺陷,残疾;障碍,不利条件

  【同义替换】defect, flaw, drawback; obstacle, barrier 【派生】handicapped a.残疾的,有生理缺陷的

  【真题】A history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, it may become a driving force.长久而不费力的成功史可能会成为一种可怕的不利因素,但若处理得当,这种不利因素也有可能转化为一种积极的推动力。

  rival

  n.竞争者,对手v.竞争,对抗a.竞争的

  【同义替换】competitor, opponent, adversary, match  【派生】rivalry n.竞争

  【真题】Later, more established companies raced to add such patents to their files, if only as a defensive move against rivals that might beat them to the punch.随后,更多的老牌公司争先恐后地将此类专利权收入自己的囊中,仅作为防范竞争对手的一种措施,以免被对手抢得先机。

  transmit

  v.传输、导;转送;发射vi.发射信号;发报

  【同义替换】send, transfer, convey, broadcast 【派生】transmitter n.发报机,发射台,起传送或传播作用的人或事物

  【真题】In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to“push”information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers. 去年,软件公司开发出新的技术,这些技术使得公司可以直接将信息“推送”给消费者,直接把营销信息传送给特定的用户。

  setback

  n.挫折,失败 【同义替换】frustration, adversity, failure, defeat

  【真题】As a result, they have lost the parachute they once had in times of financial setback——a back-up earner(usually Mom)who could go into the workforce if the primary earner got laid off or fell sick. 因此,他们失去了以前在经济困难时曾有过的保障,即当家中主要的挣钱人失业或生病时,后备挣钱人(通常是妈妈)可以出去工作。

  tribute

  n.贡品;颂词,称赞;(表示敬意的)礼物

  【同义替换】praise, acclamation, eulogy  【派生】tributary a.纳贡的;附属的

  【真题】Early promises to end Indian tribute and taxes on people of mixed origin came much slower because the new nations still needed the revenue such policies produced. 结束印第安人的贡奉问题和混血人种的税收问题的早起承诺实现得非常缓慢,因为新国家仍然需要这些政策所带来的税收收入。

  ample

  a.充分的,富裕的;宽敞的,宽大的

  【同义替换】abundant, sufficient, plenty; roomy, spacious, commodious  【派生】amply ad.充足地;广大地

  【真题】Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply. 相反,我们目睹了比以前任何时候都多的虚伪景观。

  assemble

  v.集合,召集;装配;收集vi.集合,聚集

  【构词】as-(加强)+semble(类似)→物以类聚→集合  【派生】assembly n.集合;会议;装配;(美)州议会的众议院

  【真题】As Eugene Ferguson has pointed out,“A technologist thinks about objects that cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal deions; they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process...The designer and the inventor...are able to assemble and manipulate in their minds devices that as yet do not exist.” 正如尤金·弗格森曾指出的:“技术人员思考那些不能被简化成用明确的语言描述的物体;这些物体在他的头脑中以视觉性的、非语言性的方式被处理加工……设计者和发明者……能把那些尚不存在的机械在头脑中进行组装和操作。

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